Редактируем файл:

vim ~/.config/user-dirs.dirs
# This file is written by xdg-user-dirs-update
# If you want to change or add directories, just edit the line you're
# interested in. All local changes will be retained on the next run
# Format is XDG_xxx_DIR="$HOME/yyy", where yyy is a shell-escaped
# homedir-relative path, or XDG_xxx_DIR="/yyy", where /yyy is an
# absolute path. No other format is supported.
# 
XDG_DESKTOP_DIR="$HOME/Рабочий стол"
XDG_DOWNLOAD_DIR="$HOME/Загрузки"
XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR="$HOME/Шаблоны"
XDG_PUBLICSHARE_DIR="$HOME/Общедоступные"
XDG_DOCUMENTS_DIR="$HOME/Документы"
XDG_MUSIC_DIR="/media/data/Music"
XDG_PICTURES_DIR="/media/data/Pictures"
XDG_VIDEOS_DIR="$HOME/Видео"

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